According to (Adzdzin, 201 5), it is stated that “Education in Malaysia is a continuous effort towards enhancing potentials of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner in order to create individuals who are well-equipped intellectually, spiritually and emotionally. This effort aims to produce knowledgeable, ethical and responsible Malaysian citizens who can contribute towards the harmony and prosperity of the community and nation”. Based on the philosophy, it is the ultimate aim of education where knowledge and education should path the way to goods ethic and moral values.

In ccordance with the principle of NPE, the teachers’ role is important in order to produce high quality students and subsequently can contribute to our country. Some of the skills that a teacher needs to master are to teach inductive and deductive reasoning, scientific method, and the power of observation and practice. This can be achieved through the teaching methods of hands-on curricula, group work, and experimentation. As a step to help teachers achieve these objectives, there are many belief of theories and approaches that teacher may applied during teaching and learning process.

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Based on my observation at SK Che Deris, I belief the teacher had implement Thomas Gordon Theory of Discipline as a Self-control. According to Gordon, teachers need to insist upon self-discipline in their students. Thus, rather than yelling, screaming, and punishing students without any benefits, teachers should realize that they cannot accept responsibility for someone else’s behavior and should insist that students accept the responsibility to discipline themselves. For instead, during set induction the teacher asked each group’s representative to patch the complete picture puzzle on the white board.

Without any delay, all group’s leader quickly come to the front, and paste the picture puzzle neatly. This represents the collaborative class management, where discipline is a productive way to teach kids responsibility and accountability. Other theory that I saw being used by the teacher is Building the Foundation, by William Glasser. According to Glasser, four basic psychological needs drive students, which are the need to belong, the need for power, the need for freedom, and the need for fun. This can be proven when the teacher ensuring enjoyment during class activity.

At some point in ractice stage, the teacher had paste a dialogue text that written in mahjong paper in neat and clear handwriting, with variety of colour papers to show different character. The teacher did well in giving clear instruction to the students. For example, the teacher gives one character for each group, and told them to stand up when the times for the character to speak. Then, each time she point out the name of the character, the group that instructed earlier stand up and read aloud the text. This activity assists students to be alert and gives full attention to the teacher’s order.

Based on both theories tated, I believed these theories have some connection which is mainly focus on self-discipline. The students show positive respond each time their teacher gives instruction. This can be seen during production stage, when the teacher wrote five different areas, like living room, kitchen and master bedroom. Then, she asks random students from each group to come in front and wrote what he or she normally sees in that area. I believe that almost all students understood the teacher’s instruction when some of them respond to the order immediately.

Besides, throughout the observation, I notice that most of he students behaved well and can participate during classroom activity. Other than that, the room arrangement in the classroom is based on grouping concept where it is suitable for classes that have a 35 population of students. consider the teacher use the existing opportunity in her best way by being able to observe all students at all times and to monitor work and behavior. Besides, the groups/teams arrangement can save the floor space even with many desks, while support the cooperation.

The seating arrangements in the classroom are according to the gender, where each tudent, consisting of 6 members of the same sex, will be placed in a group. It is my suggestion to mix all the gender in a group, means that each group will have boy, girl, or different races. Based on (Paul, 1992), he also stated that the physical organization of the classroom strongly influences learning. This means that, the condition of the classroom also plays an important role in order to encourage students in learning.

When the teacher place students based on different gender, this can help them to be more confidence and get accustomed when communicate with different sex. Other ways to enhance ooperation is by putting students’ different level of proficiency in one group. Thus, it will help slow learner and advance learner to cooperate and collaborate when doing any tasks. During my observation, I also can see the level of cleanliness in the classroom satisfying, where there is no trash around the table Or chair.

Some suggestions to foster the value of cleanliness in the students are by asking them to look around their table each time the teacher enter the class. Teacher also can asked students to ensure that their attire including shoes are in neat and clean condition. Therefore, the students will et used to check their hygiene before the teacher enters the classroom. However, the classroom does not provided any curtains or decorated information to attract the students’ interest. Does the way your classroom is decorated affect your learning? hink yes. This is because; there are many fundamental reasons why teachers in the educational system decorate the walls around the room. These decorations not only stimulate students’ creativity, but it also help to understand the material that the decorations are about. The way classrooms are decorated affect the way that students learn, he colorful posters and walls make the learning environment more engaging. During observation, found there was a manila card pasted on the notice board, next to the white board.

It contains a number of rules in the class with some pictures that must be obeyed by all students. Among the regulations referred to is ‘quit voic‚, with the image of mouth to indicate silent mode. However, during the lesson running, I found that the teacher did not incorporate or remind any classroom rules to the students, even when the students make noise. During the lesson, I noticed that there are several tudents from other class who try to disturb and call out their friends. The teacher do noticed the behavior but does not prohibit those students.

It is important for the teacher to keep reminding students about the rules. To make the regulations more vital, teacher can provide negative reinforcement if there are students who breaks some rules. For example, teacher can gives extra homework or warning them that he or she will inform their parents about the misbehavior that they had done. Thus, I had learned that every classroom must have certain rules that posted at a conspicuous place by tudents so that the class can be manage effectively and lesson can be conduct smoothly.

Some positive changes that I would make due to this aspect is if the regulations is still new, it is suggested for teacher to rehearse the rules with the students at first thing in the morning, after lunch and after every recess. It is intended as reminder and helps students to remember each rule easily. Thus, when you call out the rule number, your students respond with the rule itself and the correct gesture. Make the rehearsals as entertaining as possible; use a variety of voices like happy, robot, froggy and empos, fast, slow, super fast.

For additional fun, the teacher can ask one of the liveliest students to lead the rules rehearsal. In terms of classroom procedures, the teacher created an environment that was conducive to learn in which all the students appeared to feel at ease due to her warm, friendly personality and also because she was approachable and appeared to possess a genuine interest in hearing her students’ opinions. This can be seen when the teacher approach her students by asking, “How are you today? ‘ and “Do you bring your glue? to test the students’ readiness for the lesson. Nevertheless, the teacher’s voice projection is too slow to be heard by all students, especially students at the backside, added with noise distraction from the outside. One thing that I learned from the teacher related to planning and adapting those plans to fit the students’ needs because she was very organized and planned all of her activities ahead of time. Due to the classroom does not have any electronic equipment, the teacher has prepared a wide range of teaching materials and teaching aids.

For example, during set induction, the teacher uses picture puzzle activity to engage the students and o refresh them about the previous knowledge. Other than that, the teacher also uses mahjong paper, as for the replacement of LCD, and a colourful mind map as closure phase. Using these materials, the teacher actually teaches the students in fun learning way and students-centered. During the presentation phase, the teacher use mahjong paper as her teaching aids for the shared reading activity.

Throughout the activity, the teacher had use long stick to points out the board and asks the students to repeat the words after her then asks students to read aloud again. The teacher was very alert and ble to detect whenever the students have difficulty in pronounce some unfamiliar words. This can prove when she immediately waves her hands as a sign to stop reading aloud. Then the teacher directly says the certain words several times gradually and asks students to pronounce it again. also found that during the observation, the teacher explain students’ question in Malay language.

Thus, what I learned based on her respond is that teacher not recommended to explain or respond to student’s question in mother. Otherwise, teacher can use whether verbal or non-verbal respond. For xample, the teacher can use body gestures, acting or using realia object to gives explanation. Other thing that notice is the teacher does not correct students pronounce of the word their’ and ‘they. I detect those students keep pronounce these two words similarly. This will lead to a misunderstanding about the meaning of these words. The teacher also shows creativity when showing the model of mind map during closure phase.

This can gives student some clues or idea to create mind map using their own creativity. For the transition aspect, the flows from one activity to another activity are linked. It s important as it will engage students to the lesson and the objective can be achieved. Besides, the teacher also keeps encouraging students by calling the students name to do the activity. For example, after the teacher gives clear instructions, she called certain students to come in front and paste the picture puzzle. Other example is when the teacher called student’s name after the particular student make distraction during lesson running.

Another thing that really liked about her class was the fact that she incorporates a little bit of strategies training into every lesson in order to promote learner autonomy. For example, during closure phase, the teacher had shown a sample of mind map about Missing Items and pastes it on the white board, so all the students can refer to it. Next, she asked the students what are the missing items that they found after reading the text passage. The teacher does not push the students to give the answer immediately, but she waited the students to figure out the answer by themselves.

However, the mind map that she pasted was too small to be seen for students especially students at the backside. As a result, when the teacher asked students to produce their own mind map, the eacher told the students who cannot see clearly to come to the front and look at it. Some changes that would make are the teacher can combine several mahjong papers and create a mind map due to lack of technology. The experience that I had learned through this activity was it is important for the teacher to provide colourful and creative teaching materials to attract students’ interest and can remember easily.

The teacher also shows no bias among the students where she treats all the students equally. This can be proven when the teacher monitor and gives guide for the students at the backside, and also some students who less participate. The thing that I learned most from this classroom observation experience was to watch how she elicits information from the students. She appeared to be extremely patient and waited for the students to come up with their responses especially during production phase. The teacher waits for each student to come in front and wrote what they had known about the given task.

In aspects of reinforcement, the teacher that I observed does give some reinforcement especially during practice stage. After shared reading activity, the teacher asks all students to clap their hand to indicate that they did well uring the activity. However, not all students clap their hand especially for those who sit at the backside. consider that this method cannot be followed by all students. My suggestion is teacher should always give positive feedback for each of the students who did well during class activity, or even behaved well. It will give a better effect if the teacher can provide rewards, or praise to the students.

This reinforcement was created by B. F Skinner in Behaviour Modification Approach. According to Minddisorders. com (201 5), stated that behavior modification means a treatment approach, which replaces ndesirable behaviors’ with more desirable, through positive or negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is one of the behavior modification strategies that can be used in the classroom. Positive reinforcement includes rewards, incentives, feedback, motivation, and appreciation. Due to this observation, I have learned that positive reinforcement increases the occurrence of an appropriate response.

For example, the teacher can at least says “very good”, “well done”, or “correct answer” to indicate that the students had shown a positive progress. Other than that, teacher also can gives angible reinforces like candy, toys, sweets, or token to appreciate students’ work. Using scoreboard charts, teachers can provide a list of students and stick on billboards. If the student shows positive progress, the teacher may affix stickers like stars on the student’s name on the notice board. Thus, students will be more active to compete with their friends to collect more stars.

At the end of the year, teachers can improve competitiveness; by giving a mysterious gift for those who can collect the highest number of stars. In conclusion, classroom management is a skill which requires the teacher to anage the time, space, resources and students’ behaviour in preparing a conducive learning environment. It is both teacher and students responsibility to play their role in order to encourage the desired behavior from the students, create positive learning environment and form an interpersonal relationship between the teacher and students. elieve my observation’s teacher to be highly effective and someone to whom can use as a model. She incorporated many things that I liked into only a one-hour lesson, including proper planning, providing authentic and interesting materials, romoting learner autonomy through strategies training, allowing group work, employing a communicative approach to learning, creating a learner- centered environment, and using integrated focus on form. Other than that, this teacher also had implemented several theorist and approaches in order to manage the classroom effectively. Adzdzin, A. (2015).

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